December 24, 2013
I have been meaning to delve into Linux with Arch for a while. I’ve been using a VM in ESX to learn the install process. The installation has been pretty easy maybe because I have spent a fair number of years using Linux. The Arch wiki is an awesome resource and one mistake I keep making is not reading the whole page. This causes many headaches that could be avoided if I didn’t just gloss over the information.
Anyways, I wanted to provide a simple step-by-step tutorial to serve as a quick checklist. Remember that these steps can quickly get out of date as Arch moves fast. So always reference the Arch wiki first. Here are the major steps.
- Download Arch installer
- Create VM
- Boot VM and install Arch
I downloaded the dual 2013.12.01 version of the installer: archlinux-2013.12.01-dual.iso. The VM I created was of “type” Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 (64-bit) and had 2 dual-core CPUs, 2GB memory, 100GB disk, and EFI was enabled. I attached the installer ISO and started the VM. These instructions begin from when you get the root console after boot up.
Check to make sure EFI is recognized and working.
I didn’t have DHCP running so instead used static IP. Find the name of your NIC; mine was ens32.
Setup IP address and gateway
ip addr add 192.168.0.55/24 dev ens32
ip route add default via 192.168.0.1
echo "nameserver 220.127.116.11" >> /etc/resolv.conf
echo "search codeghar.com" >> /etc/resolv.conf
Get the name of the disk. It was sda in my case.
I used LVM because I wanted to learn a bit more about it. I also prefer to have a single root partition because it makes things easier for me. I used parted to partition my disk into four partitions: 1 for boot and 3 for root.
parted /dev/sda print
parted /dev/sda mklabel gpt
parted /dev/sda mkpart primary 1049KB 2GB
parted /dev/sda mkpart primary 2GB 19GB
parted /dev/sda mkpart primary 19GB 49GB
parted /dev/sda mkpart primary 49GB 99GB
parted /dev/sda set 1 boot on
parted /dev/sda set 2 lvm on
parted /dev/sda set 3 lvm on
parted /dev/sda set 4 lvm on
parted /dev/sda print
vgcreate vgcodeghar /dev/sda2
vgextend vgcodeghar /dev/sda3
lvcreate -L 25G vgcodeghar -n lvroot
Format the first partition as FAT32 because we’ll use it for /boot and EFI requires(?) the boot partition to be FAT32.
mkfs.fat -F32 /dev/sda1
mount /dev/mapper/vgcodeghar-lvroot /mnt
mkdir -p /mnt/boot
mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/boot
pacstrap /mnt base
genfstab -U -p /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
Base Configuration (Start)
Base Configuration – Swap File
Instead of a swap partition I decided to use a swap file.
fallocate -l 4G /swapfile
chmod 600 /swapfile
echo "/swapfile none swap defaults 0 0" >> /etc/fstab
Base Configuration – Locale
sed -i -e 's/#en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8/en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8/g' /etc/locale.gen
echo LANG=en_US.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf
Base Configuration – Time
ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/US/Pacific /etc/localtime
hwclock --systohc --utc
Base Configuration – Network
echo codeghar > /etc/hostname
cp /etc/netctl/examples/ethernet-static /etc/netctl/ens32.cfg
Edit the file ens32.cfg and provide your static IP information.
Enable the configuration.
netctl enable ens32.cfg
Base Configuration – initram
Edit file /etc/mkinitcpio.conf and add lvm2 between block and filesystems in the HOOKS settings.
HOOKS="base udev ... block filesystems ..."
HOOKS="base udev ... block lvm2 filesystems ..."
mkinitcpio -p linux
Base Configuration – grub
mount -t efivarfs efivarfs /sys/firmware/efi/efivars
pacman -S grub efibootmgr
There seems to be a bug where I couldn’t get grub to work properly. The solution was to add an entry to the /etc/default/grub file.
Add to file:
grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id=arch_grub --recheck
grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
Base Configuration – User
Set root password.
Create new user. I tried to follow the example of a user account from Fedora.
useradd -m -g cguser -G users,wheel,storage,power -s /bin/bash cguser
Base Configuration – Remote Access
pacman -S openssh
Configure SSH to disable root access and make any other changes you want.
systemctl enable sshd.service
Base Configuration (End)
I like to use vim so I install it as well.
pacman -S vim
Exit out of the chroot.
umount -R /mnt
You should now be able to boot to Arch and login via console or SSH.