AES Encryption with Python
September 1, 2011 10 Comments
DO NOT USE THIS POST TO LEARN ABOUT AES ENCRYPTION IN PYTHON. I DID NOT HAVE SUFFICIENT EXPERIENCE WITH BYTES, STRINGS, AND ENCRYPTION WHEN I WROTE THIS. I WILL HAVE A NEW POST WITH PYTHON3 (AND HOPEFULLY IT WILL HAVE BETTER INFORMATION).
To get AES encryption working in your Python script, you need to install PyCrypto.
Fedora: sudo yum install python-crypto
Debian: sudo aptitude install python-crypto
openSUSE: sudo zypper install python-crypto
Now the script, which has been created and tested on Python 2.7.
from Crypto.Cipher import AES from base64 import b64encode, b64decode import os from datetime import datetime from re import sub # AES is a block cipher so you need to define size of block. # Valid options are 16, 24, and 32 BLOCK_SIZE = 32 # Your input has to fit into a block of BLOCK_SIZE. # To make sure the last block to encrypt fits # in the block, you may need to pad the input. # This padding must later be removed after decryption so a standard padding would help. # Based on advice from Using Padding in Encryption, # the idea is to separate the padding into two concerns: interrupt and then pad # First you insert an interrupt character and then a padding character # On decryption, first you remove the padding character until # you reach the interrupt character # and then you remove the interrupt character INTERRUPT = u'\u0001' PAD = u'\u0000' # Since you need to pad your data before encryption, # create a padding function as well # Similarly, create a function to strip off the padding after decryption def AddPadding(data, interrupt, pad, block_size): new_data = ''.join([data, interrupt]) new_data_len = len(new_data) remaining_len = block_size - new_data_len to_pad_len = remaining_len % block_size pad_string = pad * to_pad_len return ''.join([new_data, pad_string]) def StripPadding(data, interrupt, pad): return data.rstrip(pad).rstrip(interrupt) # AES requires a shared key, which is used to encrypt and decrypt data # It MUST be of length 16, 24, or 32 # Make sure it is as random as possible # (although the example below is certainly not random) # Based on comments from lighthill, # you should use os.urandom() or Crypto.Random to generate random secret key # I also use the GRC Ultra High Security Password Generator to generate a secret key SECRET_KEY = u'a1b2c3d4e5f6g7h8a1b2c3d4e5f6g7h8' # Initialization Vector (IV) should also always be provided # With the same key but different IV, the same data is encrypted differently # IV is similar to a 'salt' used in hashing # It MUST be of length 16 # Based on comments from lighthill, # you should NEVER use the same IV if you use MODE_OFB # In any case, especially if you are encrypting, say data to be store in a database, # you should try to use a different IV for different data sets, # even if you use the same secret key IV = u'12345678abcdefgh' # Now you must choose a 'mode'. Options are available from Module AES. # Although the default is MODE_ECB, it's highly recommended not to use it. # For more information on different modes, read Block cipher modes of operation. # In this example, I had used MODE_OFB # But based on comments from lighthill, # I switched over to MODE_CBC, which seems quite popular # Let's create our cipher objects
cipher_for_encryption = AES.new(SECRET_KEY, AES.MODE_OFB, IV) cipher_for_decryption = AES.new(SECRET_KEY, AES.MODE_OFB, IV)cipher_for_encryption = AES.new(SECRET_KEY, AES.MODE_CBC, IV) cipher_for_decryption = AES.new(SECRET_KEY, AES.MODE_CBC, IV) # So you now have cipher objects # Each operation that you perform on these objects alters its state # So mostly you would want to perform a single operation on it each time # For encrypting something, create a cipher object and encrypt the data # For decrypting, create another cipher object and pass it the data to be decrypted # This is the reason I called the cipher objects # 'cipher_for_encryption' and 'cipher_for_decryption' # # # # You will want to create encryption and decryption functions # so that it's easier to encrypt and decrypt data def EncryptWithAES(encrypt_cipher, plaintext_data): plaintext_padded = AddPadding(plaintext_data, INTERRUPT, PAD, BLOCK_SIZE) encrypted = encrypt_cipher.encrypt(plaintext_padded) return b64encode(encrypted) def DecryptWithAES(decrypt_cipher, encrypted_data): decoded_encrypted_data = b64decode(encrypted_data) decrypted_data = decrypt_cipher.decrypt(decoded_encrypted_data) return StripPadding(decrypted_data, INTERRUPT, PAD) # We are now ready to encrypt and decrypt our data our_data_to_encrypt = u'123456789012345678901234567890abc' encrypted_data = EncryptWithAES(cipher_for_encryption, our_data_to_encrypt) print ('Encrypted string:', encrypted_data) # And let's decrypt our data decrypted_data = DecryptWithAES(cipher_for_decryption, encrypted_data) print ('Decrypted string:', decrypted_data)
This post would not have been possible without help from: AES Encryption in Python Using PyCrypto; Block cipher modes of operation; Symmetric Encryption with PyCrypto; AES encryption of files in Python with PyCrypto; Using Padding in Encryption; Strings (Dive into Python 3);